King Ferdinand IV, described as both “timid and bigoted” and “cruel and vengeful”, who had promptly fled away, now, when victory was assured, reappeared, condemning Ruffo’s “shameful capitulation”.The betrayal of the surrenders resulted in savage reprisals against anyone suspected of having supported the Republic or dishonoured the monarch. The harshness of the Bourbon reaction, with […]

Lady Hamilton – Horatio Nelson and Naples (part 23)